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ATHLETICS

There are different games which come into athletics such as 100 meters sprint, 400 meters, Shot Put, Javelin throw, Discus throw and more. Not only every game is very interesting but each games requires different component of fitness. Different component includes strength, endurance, flexibility, power, speed, balance and coordination. Each of the components individually plays very important role in overall performance but to become more competitive it’s a combination of these components which every game player requires. Combination helps to bring not only better competitive game but also reduce the chances of injuries during sudden changes and movements during the game.

Nutrition requirement of every game is different due to different fitness components involved. Sprinter requires low body fat while maintaining muscle mass to generate explosive power whereas Shot put player needs more mass, strength and medium speed to through almost 16 pounds shot put.  

 

COMPONENTS OF FITNESS FOR “ATHLETICS

  1. Endurance:- Endurance is simply put, the ability to endure, or a person's lasting quality specially during the game. In terms of fitness, endurance may be broken down into several types: aerobic endurance (cardiorespiratory endurance), anaerobic endurance, speed-endurance and strength-endurance. It is most commonly broken up into cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular endurance. Muscular endurance may be referred as stamina (the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly) and cardio fitness (the ability of the heart, lungs, and hormonal systems to deliver oxygen and fuel to the muscles).
  2. Strength:- Strength is the ability to move a maximum weight. In fitness it can also be described as maximum amount of force that a muscle can generate in a single effort. When athletes make significant strength gains, muscles fibers gain size. Muscular strength is a general component of fitness but strength level should only be to a point where the increased strength will not interfere with technique execution. Five components of strength include Absolute strength (producing great force), General strength (overcoming your body-weight), Power (producing force rapidly), Elastic Strength (producing force using the elastic reflex, like with jumping exercises), Strength Endurance.  When excessive amount of strength is developed , range of motion and movement is affected so it very important to keep the right balance according to the sport.
  3. Flexibility:- Flexibility is the ability to move the joints or group of joints through the ample ranges of motion to allow optimal sport performance. Stretching plays one of the major roles in increasing the flexibility of the body. There are two types of flexibility Static flexibility and Dynamic flexibility. Flexibility of a joint depends on many factors such as the length and looseness of the muscles and ligaments and the shape of the bones and cartilage that make up the joint. Most important reason for increasing flexibility is it enhances performance and reduces risk of injury. 
  4. Power:-Power in fitness is the ability of a muscular unit, or combination of muscular units, to apply maximum force in minimum time. The two components of power are strength and speed, as with power exercises. (e.g. jumping or a sprint start, snatch, clean and jerk, etc.).
  5.  Speed :-Speed is the rate of motion or the ability to change quickly. Fast movements involve reaction time (from the cue for movement to the beginning of a movement) and movement time (from the beginning to the end of a movement). Reaction time example includes how fast a sprinter can get off the blocks and react to a gun whereas movement time example includes and examples of movement time includes time taken to finish the sprint. Or Speed can also be divided in other three components such as  Acceleration (moving from a stopped position), Absolute speed (the highest velocity you can attain, i.e., your 100% max effort) and Speed endurance (the ability to maintain absolute speed)
  6. Balance:-  Balance can be static or dynamic but it the ability to maintain a position. Static balance means that the athlete is not moving whereas dynamic balance means that the athlete maintains equilibrium while moving.
  7. Coordination:-Coordination is the ability to move smoothly and efficiently.  There are different kinds of coordination which includes Agility (the ability to perform irregular movements quickly and accurately), Mobility (very similar to dynamic flexibility) and Balance.

 

EXAMPLE OF “FITNESS COMPONENTS” REQUIRED IN DIFFERENT ATHLETIC GAMES

 

FITNESS COMPONENTS

SPORTING EXAMPLE

Cardio respiratory Endurance

Marathon running, long distance activities,

1500m Freestyle

Muscular Strength

Weight Lifting

Local Muscular Endurance

Sprint Cycling

Flexibility

Gymnastics, Diving and is essential for most elite athletes.

Body Composition

Endomorph, Ectomorph and mesomorph

Muscular Power

High Jump, Long Jump, rebound in basketball.

Agility

Football, Netball and rugby

Co-ordination

All sports

Balance

Diving, Gymnastics, Wrestling.

Reaction Time

Sprints, starts, softball, baseball and cricket

Speed

100m Dash, 50m Freestyle

Anaerobic Power

400m run, 100m Freestyle all athletic field events.

 

 

 

BASICS OF NUTRITION IN ALL “ATHLETICS GAMES

  • Go easy on Fats

For long run marathon body converts fat into energy when the carbohydrate resources run low. It is always recommended to eat unsaturated fat from foods such as nuts, avocados, olives, vegetable oils and fatty fish such as tuna and salmon.

  • Drink fluid early and often

Indian weather is much hotter that western countries and High intensity exercise especially in hot weather can quickly make you dehydrated. Dehydration can always affect the performance. Expert says don’t wait until you’re thirsty. Always keep an eye on your urine.  A pale yellow color means you're getting enough fluid. Bright yellow or dark urine means you're falling short. For endurance athletes such as marathon runners or long-distance cyclists, experts recommend drinking 8 to 12 ounces of fluid every 10 or 15 minutes during an event.

  • Replenish lost electrolytes.

Sweating causes both fluid and electrolytes lost.  Electrolytes are analogous to the motor oil in your car—they don’t make the engine run, but they’re necessary to keep everything running smoothly. Proper functioning of muscular system, cardiac, nervous and digestive system depends on adequate electrolyte level. Although there are many theories involve about muscle cramping but one of the main reason is improper hydration and improper electrolytes replenishment.

  • Eat at regular intervals

Don’t eat at the last moment and always have pre-race carb meal 2 hours before exercise in order to top your energy stores in your body. Always try to have 5-8 meals and try not to make mistake of over-eating in any meals. Over eating may leave you feeling bloated and skip other meals whereas eating regular small to medium meals will help to keep your energy level and metabolism high throughout the day.

  • Eating and drinking during the race

During every 15-20 minutes it is recommended to consume small amount of liquid may be water. If the race is longer than 2 hours, then it is important to consume either a small snack like banana or a liquid with carbohydrates and electrolytes which can refuel your lost energy and electrolytes.

  • Recovery is Important

Recovery is very important to get prepared for the next best performance. During the race we have lost our energy, broken our muscle tissues, lost our electrolytes and build stress and strains on overall body, so not consuming the right nutrients after training will never help you recover better. Taking proteins and carbohydrates within 30 minutes of training will repair you broken muscle tissues and replace the lost energy.  Also try not to consume slow digesting food just after race or training as recovery should be quick.

  •  Proper sleep:  Recovery isn't just about nutrition, but keeping nutrition aside, sleep is super important. A proper 8 -10 hours of sleep is a must for players to deliver their best performance.

 

IMPORTANT NUTRIENT” DETAILS

Protein for muscle repair and growth

Complete protein contains all the essential amino acids needed for the body to repair and rebuild muscles whereas incomplete protein only includes some of the essential amino acids needed for the body.  MFF Whey protein 80™ is a complete protein with all the essentials amino acids which are required by your body and is also easily digestible making it as a preferred choice of protein.

How Much?

Every athlete has different requirement of protein per Kg of body weight. Ideally games in athletics which requires players to have strength, speed and power they require low fat and high muscle mass in their body. And long run or marathon players require low body fat and medium muscle mass so as to perform continuously for longer period. According to Burke and Deakin and Australian sports commission guide the table shows how much protein is needed for different athletes and sports players with different goals.

 

Able 1: Estimated protein requirements

  Group

Protein intake (g/kg/day)

    Sedentary men and women

0.8-1.0

    Elite male endurance athletes

1.6

    Moderate-intensity endurance athletes (a)

1.2

    Recreational endurance athletes (b)

0.8-1.0

    Football, power sports

1.4-1.7

    Resistance athletes (early training)

1.5-1.7

    Resistance athletes (steady state)

1.0-1.2

     Female athletes

~15% lower than male athlete

 

(a) Exercising approximately four to five times per week for 45-60 min
(b) Exercising four to five times per week for 30 min
   

 

How to calculate

So, a male endurance athlete (Strength & Power) weighing 70 kg’s requires 1.6 grams per kg of bodyweight every day. He should consume between 112 grams (70 Kg × 1.6 gram) per kg of body every day. Whereas, female athlete in same high endurance game weighing 60 kg’s should consume 15% (1.6 gram × 85%= 1.36 gram) lower that male athlete, i.e  81.6g (60 Kg ×1.36g) of protein per kg of body weight every day. In our day today busy life consuming one scoop of milk source MFF Whey protein 80™ will help to fulfil 23 gram of good source of dairy protein with every scoop.     

 

Load up on Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are an athlete’s main fuel.  Cabohydrates are converted to glucose which is stored in muscles as a form of sugar as glycogen. When you exercise body helps to convert glycogen into energy. 

If you exercise for under 90 minutes, the stores of glycogen in your muscles are enough for your body to fuel even high intensity exercise.  For activities lasting longer than 90 minutes requires you to replenish the carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and water. Experts suggest eating a snack and drink fluid every 15 to 20 minutes to refuel the lost energy and hydrate your body during the game.  Replenishing carbohydrate is equally important after exercise.

Also:

  • Avoid eating sugary or starchy foods within 30 minutes of starting an activity. The process uses water to metabolize carbohydrates, which can hasten dehydration after the game.
  • To achieve maximum carbohydrate storage required as energy source, experts recommend eating a diet that gets about 70% of its calories from carbohydrates, including vegetables, cereals, fruit, bread and pasta.
  • On the day of a big event, you should eat your last meal three to four hours before exercising, to give your stomach time to empty.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

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